Writing Rengay

Garry Gay wrote the following notes on 28 February 2006, for a presentation on rengay (in his absence) at the 2006 Haiku Holiday (I need to confirm this detail) sponsored by the North Carolina Haiku Society. The NCHS group later made Garry’s original draft available in PDF form. The text presented here incorporates edits and headings by Michael Dylan Welch approved by Garry Gay in December of 2012. See also “Rengay,” the original version of this presentation, published in 2003 in In Good Company. A much shorter variation of this essay also appeared in Terry Ann Carter’s book Lighting the Global Lantern (Yarker, Ontario: Wintergreen Studios Press, 2011). The photos are also by Garry Gay, and also appear here with Garry’s permission. For more on the origin of rengay, please read the postscript to “Japanese Renku Group Visits San Francisco.”       +

by Garry Gay

Let’s start from the beginning. Rengay was introduced at the first major Renku North America renku-writing session on August 9, 1992 in Foster City, California. The morning before the event took place I had showed my friend Michael Dylan Welch the outline of what the form looked like. He was eager to try one. So in a small coffee shop we wrote the first rengay, “Deep Winter.” I had been exploring alternatives to the longer renku. I was seeking a more intimate and thematic form. I knew I wanted a form that was able to stay in the moment much like a haiku yet have more depth than a haiku because of the perspective of two (or three) writers on the same theme. After playing around with different lengths and different combinations on two- and three-verse patterns, I felt one particular pattern to be the most workable in my mind. I purposefully had the poets trade places midway through the overall poem to give each writer a position of power. One poet opens the poem, one poet closes the poem. Six verses seemed just right. Often the journals of the day would give a single writer a full page, either for their own work or for a haiku sequence. It stood to reason they would give a full page to two poets.


Obviously, the name rengay was wordplay on “renga” and my last name. All I did was hang a “y” on the end. But rengay are not renga or renku. And they are not meant to be. They are two completely different forms. You could even say one is an Eastern linking form and one is a Western linking form. But the rengay is very dependent on one’s ability to understand and write haiku. To write a good rengay you are probably a good haiku writer as well. Rengay, like haiku, rely on your ability at suggestive writing.


Let’s look at the rengay’s structure. Two (or three) writers participate in producing a six-stanza linked poem. The first writer (to be decided between them) starts off with a three-line verse. I suppose this could also be called the hokku. Then this is followed by the second writer with a two-line verse. Again the first writer contributes a three-line stanza. Then the second writer writes a three-line stanza, followed by the first writer’s two-line verse, and again by the second writer with the final three-line stanza. Thus for two writers the progression is as follows, with the letters representing the poets and the numbers indicating the number of lines in the given verses:

A-3, B-2, A-3, B-3, A-2, B-3

The pattern for three poets is as follows:

A-3, B-2, C-3, A-2, B-3, C-2

So a rengay is a collaborative six-verse linked thematic poem written by two or three poets alternating three-line and two-line haiku or haiku-like stanzas in a regular pattern or form. It is really important to keep in mind that each verse is really a standalone haiku in either three or two lines. Many haiku writers don’t write two-line haiku very often, so these can be the most challenging. Sometimes they are also the glue that hold the rengay together.


The rengay lets you explore a topic or theme or to stay in one place or season. They are very effective in celebrating a special occasion like a wedding or event like the 50th anniversary of the Golden Gate Bridge. I find that many people are writing them while working with a larger group on a renku, as there is often a lot of time while waiting for others to offer renku verses.

There are a number of ways to approach the theme or central topic of a rengay. You and your writing partner can each suggest a theme you’re interested in, like writing on a certain kind of bird or a color like blue or things that are blue. Or you can take a walk or hike and write about some shared experience or simply offer each other starting verses until one is acceptable to both of you. You can also write on a shared experience but maybe one not experienced together at the same time, like the topic of lakes, but in different areas. Keep in mind that your verses don’t always have to link back to the last verse as long as it links to the central theme.

Linking and Shifting

What I’ve just said leads me to linking and shifting, which can be quite fun in rengay. Remember that you are looking at the same subject but from a variety of angles. You can link back to the previous verse or link to the thematic topic. It is possible for all six verses to link to the topic and not link directly to each other. Shifting is where you need to take the most care. While you can easily shift away from the previous link, if you shift too far away, the overall poem will not make sense. Some shifting will add natural tension to the poem. Some shifting will keep your writing partner guessing on where you are going. Sometimes shifting away can be playful but again if you go too far you will lose your reader (and maybe your writing partner too). While you may shift away, your partner may link back. Sometimes you want a blend of both linking back and shifting away. Your verse may suggest the one before while still exploring new ground or ideas.


The fun part is talking over your verse or link. Does it communicate the mood of the poem? Did you use a similar word earlier? Advance the idea or concept of the poem? The whole process of writing together is where the real joy and satisfaction comes from. The communication between poets sharing their views and discussing their craft and ideas and viewpoints is very rewarding. Often each poet offers the other several verses and, between you, you agree on the verse that best carries the poem forward. Remember that this is a collaboration.


The last link is a very important verse. In some subtle way it often links back to the first verse, but it does not always do so. Sometimes in rengay, just as in haiku, the ending is purposely left with that open-ended feeling.

Theme Development

Let me speak more on the topic of the theme in rengay. This is the whole point of the poem—theme development. I write with some poets who need to have an established theme before we start writing. Others have no idea where we might start but offer poems they have recently written from their journals. I know one poet who writes solo rengay yet the starting verse is taken from a haiku master’s famous poem. Sometimes I’ll meet with someone for a hike and as we write we offer possible starting verses. Something I think that you need to be aware of is a second theme or sublevel theme running through the poem. This is where I want you to take a look at the rengay “Snapshot,” which I wrote with Cherie Hunter Day:


cropped photograph—

leaving my shadow

on the darkroom floor Cherie


from the bottom of the tray

your smile slowly develops   Garry


pulling me closer

in front of the camera . . .

first date Cherie



on the bulletin board

your snapshot Garry


a roll of negatives . . .

the brightness of your dark eyes   Cherie



I join you

in the photograph Garry

Do you see two themes here? Yes, two themes are present. The first subject is photography and the second subject is a developing relationship (no pun intended). Unlike many rengay, both of these topics are very strong. But often the second theme is much more subtle. I have even written several rengay that have three themes going on, and once been in one with four themes. Four was way too many but fun to try. In most cases, two is enough. If the second theme is so subtle that no one sees it, though, I would have to call it unsuccessful. So try developing a second subtheme. Again, of course, you need not do this, but it can add depth to your rengay.


Titles can be quite fun. They can be used in clever ways. Sometimes they just name the place where the poem took place, like “Hammerhorn Lake,” which I wrote with Michael Dylan Welch and John Thompson:

Hammerhorn Lake

dragonfly wing

caught in a mud crack—

mountain lake   Michael


lizard sunning itself

on a swimmer’s boat John


over the mountain

a small cloud

and its reflection   Garry


between parted reeds

coon tracks Michael


bleached snail shells

crunching underfoot—

a drifting waterlily   John


the wind dies down

to a cricket sound Garry

Or the title can suggest something going on in the poem without giving away the topic or theme. Sometimes the title is just taken from a line in the poem. Also, the title can be useful to point out that there is a very low-key second theme. The title can almost be the punch line for bringing the poem back to the beginning. It’s not until you have read the whole poem that you then understand what the title meant.

Other Devices

Unlike renku, there are no devices in the poem like flower or moon positions. And there is no hard-and-fast rule against repeating the same word. Although I do try to avoid this, I have also purposefully repeated the same word in each verse. For the most part, if you are sticking to the theme and staying within the verse pattern, you’re doing fine.

Acceptance and Growth

The rengay’s acceptance worldwide shows that there was a need for such a thematic form of poetry. I think the energy and rush that comes from working intimately with another writer on developing the poem through a shared vision is what has gelled it into a successful form. A wonderful chemistry goes on between the poets as they share their possible verses and subtle changes and suggestions that leads to a deeper friendship between them.